Amblyopia: Amblyopia "lazy eye" is reduced vision in an eye that
has not received adequate use during early childhood and the vision pathways in the
brain don't grow strong enough. One eye becomes stronger than the other eye. If
this condition persists, the weaker eye may become useless. If amblyopia hasn't
been treated by 8 to 10 years of age, the child will have poor vision for life.
Ambulatory Care: Health care provided to persons without their
admission to a health facility.
Birth Rate: Birth rate is calculated by dividing the number of
live births in a population in a year by the midyear resident population. Birth
rates are expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 population. The rate may
be restricted to births to women of specific age, race, marital status, or
geographic location (specific rate), or it may be related to the entire population
Birth Weight: A birth weight is the first weight of the newborn
obtained after birth.
Body Mass Index (BMI): BMI is a measure that adjusts bodyweight
for height. It is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters
squared. Overweight for children and adolescents is defined as BMI at or above the
sex-and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cut points from the revised CDC Growth
Caries Experience: The sum of filled and unfilled cavities, along
with any missing teeth resulting from decay.(3)
Cause Of Disease: A factor (characteristic, behavior, event, etc.)
that directly influences the occurrence of disease. A reduction of the factor in
the population should lead to a reduction in the occurrence of disease.
Cause-of-Death: For the purpose of national mortality statistics,
every death is attributed to one underlying condition, based on information
reported on the death certificate and utilizing the international rules for
selecting the underlying cause-of-death from the reported conditions.
Chronic Condition: A chronic condition refers to any condition
lasting 3 months or more or is a condition classified as chronic regardless of its
time of onset (for example, diabetes, heart conditions, emphysema, and arthritis).
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): Newborns are screened for a
defect in the enzyme – 21-hydoxylase. Early diagnosis and treatment has great
benefit to the infant – Signs of the disease if not treated include hyponatremia,
hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, dehydration and early death; ambiguous genitalia in
females and progressive virilization in both sexes. Treatment will prevent adrenal
crises, persistent virilization and adult short stature due to androgen effect of
premature skeletal maturation. Plastic surgery corrects ambiguous genitalia in
female. (Prevalence (1:16,000 to 1:17,000; 1:3,000 Native Eskimo)
Congenital Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is one of the most
common of endocrine disorders in childhood. Lacking one specific target organ,
thyroid hormones play a role in the biologic processes of essentially every organ's
system. Newborns are screened for the absence of the thyroid gland, hypoplastic, or
dysfunctional thyroid gland. Mental and motor retardation, short stature, coarse
dry skin and hair, constipation, hoarse cry are among the symptoms. Treatment and
management includes the replacement of the thyroid hormone L-thyroxine, maintenance
of levels in upper half of normal range and monitoring of bone growth and
development. (Prevalence 1:5,000-1-6:000, ethnic variation in prevalence --
1:12,000 black, 1:1,000 Indian)
Contact: Exposure to a source of an infection, or a person so
Contagious: Capable of being transmitted from one person to
another by contact or close proximity.
Death Rate: A death rate is calculated by dividing the number of
deaths in a population in a year by the midyear resident population.
Demographic Information: The ``person'' characteristics--age, sex,
race, and occupation--of descriptive epidemiology used to characterize the
populations at risk.
Dental Caries (dental decay or cavities): An infectious disease
that results in demineralization and ultimately cavitation of the tooth surface if
not controlled or remineralized. Dental cavities may be either treated (filled) or
Disability: Disability is a general term that refers to any
long- or short-term reduction of a person's activity as a result of an acute or
E. coli O157:H7: An infection of variable severity characterized
by diarrhea (often bloody) and abdominal cramps. Illness may be complicated by
hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP);
asymptomatic infections also may occur. (CDC Epidemiology Program Office, 2002)
Early Childhood Caries (ECC): Dental decay of the primary teeth of
infants and young children (aged 1 to 5 years) often characterized by rapid
Emergency Department Visit: An emergency department visit is a
direct personal exchange between a patient and a physician or other health care
providers working under the physician's supervision, for the purpose of seeking
care and receiving personal health services. Visits resulting in a hospital
admission are excluded.
Emergency Department: According to the National Hospital
Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, an emergency department is a hospital facility for
the provision of unscheduled outpatient services to patients whose conditions
require immediate care and is staffed 24 hours a day. Off-site emergency
departments open less than 24 hours are included if staffed by the hospital's
Epidemic: The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given
area or among a specific group of people over a particular period of time.
Epidemiology: Study of the distribution and determinant diseases and
injuries in human populations. Epidemiology is concerned with frequencies and
types of injuries and illness in groups of people and with factors that influence
the distribution of illness and injuries in populations.
Family Income: Family income includes wages, salaries, rents from property,
interest, dividends, profits and fees from their own businesses, pensions, and help
Fertility Rate: Fertility rate is the total number of live births,
regardless of age of mother, per1,000 women of reproductive age, 15-44 years.
Fetal Death: Fetal death is death before the complete expulsion or
extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration
of pregnancy; the death is indicated by the fact that after such separation, the
fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the
heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.
A fetal death rate is the number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation
of 20 weeks or more divided by the sum of live births plus fetal deaths, stated per
1,000 live births plus fetal deaths, and a late fetal death rate is the number of
fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 28 weeks or more divided by the
sum of live births plus late fetal deaths, stated per 1,000 live births plus late
First-Listed Diagnosis: In the National Hospital Discharge Survey, this is
the first recorded final diagnosis on the medical record summary sheet.
Galactosemia: Newborns are screened for an absence of the enzyme
Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) to convert galactose into glucose.
Without diet management of limiting galactose and lactose from the diet, baby's
will develop vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, disturbances of liver function, severe
brain damage, mental retardation, kidney damage, blindness and cataracts in
neonates and death if untreated from severe dehydration, sepsis or liver failure.
Gestation: For the National Vital Statistics System and the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention's Abortion Surveillance, the period of gestation is
defined as beginning with the first day of the last normal menstrual period and
ending with the day of birth or day of termination of pregnancy.
Health Indicator: A measure that reflects, or indicates, the state of
health of persons in a defined population, e.g., the infant mortality rate.
Health Information System: A combination of health statistics from various
sources, used to derive information about health status, health care, provision and
use of services, and impact on health.
Health Insurance: Private health insurance includes private health
insurance or a single service hospital plan. Private health insurance includes
managed care such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Public forms of
health insurance are Medicare, Medicaid, public assistance, a state-sponsored
health plan, other government-sponsored programs, or a military health plan.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO): An HMO is a prepaid health plan
delivering comprehensive care to members through designated providers, having a
fixed monthly payment for health care services, and requiring members to be in a
plan for a specified period of time (usually 1 year).
Health: A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Hemoglobinopathies (Sickle Cell Disease and Thallasemia): Detectable at
birth, newborns are screened for hemoglobin diseases which are a group of autosomal
recessive disorders characterized by synthesis of abnormal hemoglobin molecules or
decreased synthesis of a beta globin chain. Substitution, addition or deletion of
amino acids occurs to globin chains. Affected newborns with sickle cell disease
may have early overwhelmng sepsis and require prompt evaluation at a comprehensive
care facility. Early care and prophylactic penicillin can reduce morbidity and
mortality. Prevalence (1:4000 of African descent and 1:1300 in general
High-Risk Group: A group in the community with an elevated risk of
Home Health Care: Home health care as defined by the National Home and
Hospice Care Survey is care provided to individuals and families in their place of
residence for promoting, maintaining, or restoring health; or for minimizing the
effects of disability and illness including terminal illness.
Hospital Discharge: The National Health Interview Survey defines a hospital
discharge as the completion of any continuous period of stay of one night or more
in a hospital as an inpatient.
Impairment: An impairment is a health condition that includes chronic or
permanent health defects resulting from disease, injury, or congenital
Incidence: Incidence is the number of cases of disease having their onset
during a prescribed period of time. It is often expressed as a rate (for example,
the incidence of measles per 1,000 children 5-15 years of age during a specified
year). Incidence is a measure of morbidity or other events that occur within a
specified period of time.
Infant Death / Mortality: An infant death is the death of a live-born child
before his or her first birthday. Deaths in the first year of life may be further
classified according to age as neonatal and postneonatal. Neonatal deaths are those
that occur before the 28th day of life; postneonatal deaths are those that occur
between 28 and 365 days of age. An infant mortality rate is based on period files
calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths during a calendar year by the
number of live births reported in the same year. It is expressed as the number of
infant deaths per 1,000 live births.