Essential Public Health Services and MAPP - A History
The ten essential public health services
are used throughout the MAPP process. The ten essential public health
services framework was developed in 1994 as a method for better
identifying and describing the core processes used in public health to
promote health and prevent disease. All public health responsibilities
(whether conducted by the local public health agency or another
organization within the community) can be categorized into one of the
services. The MAPP model was developed in 1999-2000 to be used as a guide
for local and state public health systems in their efforts to achieve the
optimal performance standards of the National Public Health Standards
The Ten Essential Public Health Services
- Monitor health status to identify community health problems.
- Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the
- Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.
- Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health
- Develop policies and plans that support individual and community
- Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety.
- Link people to needed personal health services and assure the
provision of health care when otherwise unavailable.
- Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce.
- Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and
population-based health services.
- Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health
Further information about each essential
service including a description of the types of activities found in each
can be found in the Local Health System Performance Measurement
instrument (used in both MAPP's Local Health System Assessment, as well as
the National Public Health Performance Standards Program).
|Timeline of Key Events and the Development of the National Public
Health Performance Standards Program and MAPP||
Institute of Medicine (IOM) published its landmark report The Future of Public
Health. The report defined public health as what society does collectively to
assure the conditions for people to be healthy and presented strong evidence to
indicate that the public health systemthe organizational mechanism for
achieving the best population healthwas in disarray. Although the report
described the public health system as the governmental public health agencies
and the associated efforts of private and voluntary organizations and
individuals, it focused specifically on ways to strengthen governmental public
The Core Functions and Essential Public Health Services provide the fundamental
framework for the public health activities that should be undertaken in all
communities. The Core Public Health Functions Steering Committee developed the
framework for the Ten Essential Services of Public Health in 1994. This steering
committee included representatives from US Public Health Service agencies and
other major public health organizations. While the Core Functions of Public Health
provide the guiding principles for the practice of public health, the Ten
Essential Services of Public Health are the actions that should be taken to
guarantee that community health needs are met.
Department of Health and Human Services launched Healthy People 2010, a
comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda.
Healthy People 2010 contains 467 objectives designed to serve as a road map for
improving the health of all people in the United States during the first decade
of the 21st Century.
MAPP is the acronym for Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships.
Developed by NACCHO and CDC and released in February 2001, it is a designed to
guide communities through a health improvement process. The MAPP model provides
a framework for public health practice in accordance with the Core Functions and
Ten Essential Services
The Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century was
convened with the charge to create a framework for assuring population health in
the United States that would be more inclusive than that of the 1988 report and
that could be effectively communicated to and acted upon by diverse communities.
In the new report, the Committee uses the term public health system in a
manner that builds on the 1988 usage, but reflects present realities. The Future
of the Publics Health examines both the governmental component of the public
health system and the potential contributions of other sectors and entities. The Committee decided to embrace the vision articulated by
Healthy People 2010, the health initiative for the nationhealthy people in
healthy communities. The report focuses on the governmental public health
infrastructure and several potential partners in the public health system,
namely, the community, the health care delivery system, employers and business,
the media, and academia.